Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Database

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Broken Hill.

Latitude / Longitude



A:Broken Hill.
B:Cave in No.1 Kopje(later destroyed by quarrying), Broken Hill Mine, Kabwe, Central Province.
E:T.Zwigelaar, 17 June 1921(cranium); A.S.Armstrong and Mrs A.W.Whittington, 1921; A.Hrdlicka, 1925(other remains).
F:Cranium filled with secondary zinc ore, but within lead-impregnated Zone of breccia. J.D.Clark, K.P.Oakley, L.H.Wells and J.A.C.McClelland 1950, New Studies on Rhodesian Man, Jl. R.anthrop Inst., 77: 7-32.
H:Upper Pleistocene. J.D.Clark et al. 1950.
I:Early Middle Stone Age, 'Proto-Stillbay' tradition. J.D.Clark in J.D.Clark et al. 1950: 13-30. J.D.Clark 1959, Further Excavations at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia, Jl.R.anthrop. Inst., 89: 201-232. 'Proto-Stillbay'=facies of Sangoan or Late Acheulian.
J:Mammalian fauna mainly of extant species including the rare Litoctanius cf. walleri but seven extinct genera are present, including Homoioceras baini. L.S.B.Leakey, in J.D.Clark 1959: 225-230. ('Bat bones' proved to be mainly shrew, Crocidura). R.G.Klein 1973, Geological Antiquity of Rhodesian Man, Nature, Lond., 244: 311-312.
K:Broken Hill 1 cranium: F=1-8%, 100F/P205=6-1, eU308=11ppm, N=0-1%. Broken Hill 2 maxilla: F=0-7%, 100F/P205=6-1, eU308=20ppm, N=0-1%. Broken Hill 3 parietal:f=1-2%, 100F/P205=4-3, eU308=48ppm, N=nil. Rt femur(E907): F=1-0%, 100F/P205=4-3, eU308=32ppm, N=0-1%. Lt femur(EM793): F=0-8%, 100F/P205=2-8, eU308=32ppm, N=nil. Faunal controls. Crocidura: F=1-5%, 100F/P205=4-9, eU308=30ppm, N=nil. 15 other bones: N=0-0-26%. K.P.Oakley 1957, The Dating of Broken Hill (Rhodesian) Man, in G.H.R.von Koenigswald(ed.) 1957, Hundert Jahre Neanderthaler, Utrecht: 265-269.
L:A1: 110,000 BP on basis of racemization of aspartic acid in femur shaft fragment EM793. J.L.Bada, R.A.Schroeder, R.Protsch and R.Berger 1974, Concordance of Collagen-Based Radiocarbon and Aspartic-Acid Racemization Ages, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 71: 914-917. A3: perhaps c. 45,000-35,000 BP on basis of C14 dating of charcoal associated with industries of the Sangoan to Proto-Stillbay traditions in Pomongwe Cave, Matopo Hills, Phodesia. 'Stillbay': 35,530 +- 780 BP (SR-39); 'Proto-Stillbay' 42,200 +- 2300 BP (SR-8); 'Proto-Stillbay' > 42,000 BP (SR-7). 37,900-46,100 BP on basis of C14 dating of carbon associated with Sangoan Industrial complex at Kalambo Falls, Zambia.
M:Broken Hill 1. adult male: cranium (E686); all maxillary dentes present and worn, expect rt I2; rt M3 roots only. Holotype of Homo rhodesiensis Woodward, 1921. Holotype of Cyphanthropus rhodesiensis Pycraft, 1928. Plate 20. Broken Hill 2. rt maxilla(f)(E687). Broken Hill 3. parietale(f)(E897). Broken Hill post-cranial bones: at least 3 individuals not in clear association with numbered individuals: sacrum(i)(E688), lt ilium, female(f)(E726), rt ilium and ischium, male(ff)(E719), rt humerus(part of distal end)(E898), lt femur(part of proximal end)(E689) lt femur(part of distal end)(E689), lt femur, female? (part of disphysis)(E690), lt(?) femur (diaphysis fragment)(EM793), rt femur(part of proximal end)(E907), lt tibia(i) (E691).