Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Database

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Placename

Mugharet es-Skhul.

Latitude / Longitude

32.66666667
35.08333333

data

ID:30150
A:Mugharet es-Skhul.
X:e
B:Cave in the Wadi el-Mughara, southern part of the Mount Carmel range, 19 km S of Haifa, Israel.
C:3240N
D:3505E
E:T. D. McCown, 26 May 1931(Skhul 1); T. D. McCown & H. L. Movius Jr, April-May 1932(Skhul 2-10).
F:Layer B; breccia. T. D. McCown 1937, Mugharet es-Skhul. Description and excavation, in D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937, The Stone Age of Mount Carmel I: excavations at the Wadi el-Mughara, Oxford: 96-107.
G:Burials. T. D. McCown 1937.
H:End of Last Interpluvial. T. D. McCown & A. Keith 1939, The Stone Age of Mount Carmel II: the fossil human remains from the Levalloiso-Mousterian, Oxford: 14. Interstadial of Last Pluvial. E. S. Higgs & D. R. Brothwell 1961, North Africa and Mount Carmel: recent developments, Man, 61: 138-139.
I:Lower Levalloiso-Mousterian. D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937: 109-112.
J:Hystrix, Felis, Hyaena, Vormela cf. peregusna, Vulpes vulpes, Procavia cf. syriaca, Equus Hemionus, E. cf. hydruntinus, Rhinoceros cf. hemitoechus, Phacochoerus garrodae, Sus gadarensis, Hippopotamus amphibius, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Dama mesopotamica, Bos, Capra, Alcelaphus, Gazella. D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937: 148-149.
K:Skhul 5: F=0.05%, 100F/P205=0.4, N=0.05%. Skhul 9: F=0.3%, 100F/ P205=1.0. Animal bone associated with Mousterian: F=0.05%, 100F/P205= 0.17, eU308=nil, N=nil.
M:Skhul 1. infant, probably male, 4-4.5 years: calvaria(f), upper lt di1, dc, dm2, rt dm1-2, unerupted crowns of upper lt C, M1, rt I1-2, M1; mandibula(f), lower lt di2, dm2, rt dc, dm1-2, unerupted crowns of lower lt & rt M1; nearly complete post-cranial skeleton. Lectotype of Palaeanthropus palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932. Skhul 2. female, 30-40 years: calavaria(ff), upper rt C, P4-M2; mandibula(ff), lower lt I1, C-P4, M2, rt C; 2 humeri(ff), lt radius(ff), 2 ulnae(ff). Skhul 3. adult male: lt femur(ff), lt tibia(ff), lt fibula(ff). Skhul 4. male, 40-50 years cranium(ff), mandibula(ff), nearly complete dentition, nearly complete post-cranial skeleton. Skhul 5. male 30-40 years: cranium(ff), mandibula(i), dentition complete except for lower rt P3(Plate 3), nearly complete post carnial skeleton. Skhul 6. male 30-35 years: calvaria(ff), upper lt C, rt M1(f), lt ramus and pars corpus mandibulae(f), lower lt P3, M2-3; post-cranial skeleton(ff). Skhul 7. female, 35-40 years: frontale(ff), rt malar(f), lt temporale(f), fragments of parietale and occipitale, lt I1-2, M2-3, rt M1-3; corpus mandibulae(f) rt famus mandibulae(ff), lt M1-3, roots I2-P4, rt M1-3; 3 vertebrae(ff), 6 fragments costae, lt scapula(ff), lt clavicula(ff), sternum(f), 2 humeri(diaphyses), 2 radii(ff), 2 ulnae(i,ff), 2 ilia(ff), sacrum(ff), rt femur(ff), 2 tibiae(ff), 2 fibulae(ff), rt talus(ff), rt calcaneus(ff), lt cuneiforme mediale(ff), metatarsale V(ff). Skhul 8. child, probably male, 8-10 years: rt femur(f), 2 tibiae(f), lt fibula(f), rt talu(i), rt calcaneus(f), rt naviculare(f), lt tarsus, lt metatarsalia, 2 lt phalanges pedis. Skhul 9. male, about 50 years: calvaria(f), vertebrae, costae(ff), scapula(ff), pelvis(f), metacarpale, femur(f), ossa pedis(f). Skhul 10. infant, probably male, 5-5.5 years: crowns of upper lt C, M1, rt P3, M2, pars corpus mandibulae(ff), lower lt di1, dm1-2, rt di1-2, unerupted crowns of lower lt I1-P3, M1, rt I1-C; rt humerus(ff). Skhul unnumbered. isolated remains: small cranial fragment, fragment parietale, fragment lt mandibula, 4 fragments humeri, 4 fragments femora, 3 fragments tibiae, lt patella, lt metatarsal I.
N:T. D. McCown 1932, A note on the excavation and the human remains from the Mugharet es-Skhul(Cave of the Kids), season of 1931, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist. Res., 8: 12-15(Skhul 1). T. D. McCown 1933, Fossil men of the Mugharet es-Skhul, near Athlit, Palestine, season of 1932, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist. Res., 9: 9-15(Skhul 1 2-9). T. D. McCown 1936, Mount Carmel Man, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist Res., 12: 131-140(Skuhl 10).
O:T. D. McCown & A. Keith 1939.
P:D. R. Brothwell 1961, The people of Mount Carmel: a reconsideration of their position in human evolution, Proc. prehist. Soc., (N.S.) 27: 155-159. Homo sapiens. E. S. Higgs & D. R. Brothwell 1961. F. C. Howell 1958, Upper Pleistocene men of the southwest Asian Mousterian, in G. H. R. von Koenigswald(ed.) 1958, Hundert Jahre Neanderthaler, Utrecht: 185-189. A. Thoma 1965, La definition des Neandertaliens et la position des hommes fossiles de Palestine, Anthropologie, Paris, 69: 519-533.
Q:T. D. McCown & A. Keith 1939.
R:A. Keith & T. D. McCown 1937, Mount Carmel Man: his bearing on the ancestry of modern races, in G. G. MacCurdy(ed.) 1937, Early man, Philadelphia: 44-52. L. Picard 1937, Inferences on the problem of the Pleistocene climate of Palestine and Syria drawn from flora, fauna and stratigraphy, Proc. prehist. Soc.(N. S.) 3: 58-70. C. E. Snow 1953, The ancient Palestinian: Skhul V reconstruction, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist. Res., 17: 5-12. A. Thoma 1957-1958, Metissage ou transformation? Essai sur les hommes fossiles de Palestine, Anthropologie, Paris, 61: 470-502; 62: 30-52. E. S. Higgs 1961, Some Pleistocene faunas of the Mediterranean coastal areas, Proc. prehist. Soc.(N.S.) 27: 144-154. F. C. Howell 1961, Stratigraphie du Pleistocene Superieur dans L'Asie du Sud-Ouest: age relatif et absolu de 1'homme et de ses industries, Anthropologie, Paris, 65: 46-66. D. Ferembach 1962, Esquisse d'un histoire raciale de la Palestine du Paleolithique inferieur au Chalcolithique, Soc. d'Etudes et de Rech. prehist., 11: 127-139. B. G. Campbell 1965, The Nomenclature of the Hominidae, 0cc. Pap. anthrop. Inst., 22: 12(fn).
S:Rockefeller Museum, Jerusalem(Skhul 1 & 4). British Museum(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London. SW7, England. Formerly Royal College of Surgeons Collection, since 1955,(Skhul 9). Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, U.S.A.(Skhul 2, 3, 5-8, isolated dentes).
T:University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, U.S.A.(Skhul 1, 4 & 5, Barlow Nos 591-607; Skhul 5, C. E. Snow reconstruction). Wenner-Gren Foundation Casting Program, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research 14 East 71st Street, New York, N.Y. 10021, U.S.A. Nos. M-SL1(Skhul 5 cranium), M-SL2(Skhul 5, mandibula).

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