Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Database

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Placename

Mugharet et-Tabun(Layer C).

Latitude / Longitude

32.66666667
35.08333333

data

ID:30152
A:Mugharet et-Tabun(Layer C).
X:e
B:Cave in the Wadi el-Mughara, southern part of the Mount Carmel range, 19 km S of Haifa, Israel.
C:3240N
D:3505E
E:Members of Joint Expedition of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem & the American School of Prehistoric Research, directed by D. A. E. Garrod, 1929-1934.
F:Layer C; hard dark red earth. D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937, The Stone Age of Mount Carmel I: excavations at the Wadi el-Mughara, Oxford: 63-65. F. C. Howell 1959, Upper Pleistocene stratigraphy and early man in the Levant, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 103: 7-10.
G:Burial: Tabun C1. T. D. McCown & A. Keith 1939, The Stone Age of Mount Carmel II: the fossil human remains from the Levalloiso-Mousterian, Oxford: 9.
H:End of Last Interpluvial. F. C. Howell 1959: 8-10. D. R. Brothwell 1961, The people of Mount Carmel: a reconsideration of their position in human evolution, Proc. prehist. Soc.,(N.S.) 27: 155-159.
I:Lower Levalloiso-Mousterian. D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937: 74-76. D. A. E. Garrod 1956, Acheuleo-Jabroudien et "Pre-Aurignacien" de la Grotte du Taboun(Mount Carmel); etude stratigraphique et chronologique, Quaternaria, 3: 39-59.
J:Crocidura katinka, C. xanthippe, Erinaceus sharonis, Myotis cf. baranensis, Cricetinae, Ellobius pedorychus, Gerbillinae, Hystrix, Microtus cf. guentheri, M.(Chionomys) machintoni, Murinae, Philistomys roachi, Canis cf. lupaster, Hyaena crocutta, H. prisca, Panthera cf. pardus, Ursus mediterraneus, U. arctos, Vulpes vinetorum, V. vulpes, Procavia cf. syriaca, Equus caballus, E. hemionus, E. cf. hydruntinus, Rhinoceros cf. hemitoechus, Phacochoerus garrodiae, Sus gadarensis, Hippopotamus amphibius, Capreolus capreolus, Dama mesopotamica, Bos, Capra, Alcelaphus, Gazella. Reptilia: Crocodilus, Trionyx. Amphibia: frog or toad. D. A. E. Garrod & D. M. A. Bate 1937: 146-148. E. S. Higgs 1961, Some Pleistocene faunas of the Mediterranean coastal areas, Proc. prehist. Soc.,(N.S.) 27: 144-154.
K:Tabun C1, lt femur: F=0.19%, 100F/P2050=0.57, N=nil. Dama phalanx; layer C: F=0.3%, 100F/P205=0.8, N=0.02%.
L:A2: 40,900+-1000 BP(GrN-2729) on basis of radiocarbon dating of charcoal(probably charred bone) from layer C at a depth of 2 m. J. C. Vogel & H. T. Waterbolk 1963; Groningen radiocarbon dates IV, Radiocarbon, 5: 172. Overlying Levantine Upper Palaeolithic horizon(s) have radiocarbon ages of 29,450 to 36,850 BC(LJ-2068, -2070, -2075, -2082, -2084). G. S. Bien & L. J. Pandolfi 1972, La Jolla natural radio-carbon measurements VI, Radiocarbon, 14: 368-379.
M:Tabun C1. "Tabun I". female about 30 years: cranium(ff), mandibula(f), dentition complete except upper lt M3(Plate 4), nearly complete post-cranial skeleton. Tabun C2. "Tabun II". male, about 30-35 years: mandibula(i), all lower dentes except lt I1. Tabun C3. female: rt femur(diaphysis). Tabun C4. female: distal part of rt radius. Tabun C5. rt os hamatum. Tabun C6. rt os pisiforme. Tabun C7. phalanx proximalis pollucis(C5, C6, C7 possibly associated).
N:D. A. E. Garrod 1934, Excavation at the Wady el-Mughara(Palestine) 1932-3, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist. Res., 10: 7-11(Tabun C1 & C2). "Closely related to Neandertal".
O:T. D. McCown 1936, Mount Carmel Man, Bull. Am. Sch. prehist. Res., 12: 131-140. Neandertal. T. D. McCown & A. Keith 1939. Palaeoanthropus palestinensis.
P:D. R. Brothwell 1961. A. Thoma 1965, La definition des Neandertaliens et la position des hommes fossiles de Palestine, Anthropologie, Paris, 69: 519-533. Neandertal.
Q:T. D. McCown 1958, Upper Pleistocene men of the southwest Asian Mousterian, in G. H. R. von Koenigswald(ed.) 1958, Hundert Jahre Neanderthaler, Utrecht: 185-198.
R:A. Thoma 1957-1958, Metissage ou transformation? Essai sur les hommes fossiles de Palestine, Anthropologie, Paris, 61: 470-502; 62: 30-52. E. S. Higgs & D. R. Brothwell 1961, North Africa and Mount Crmel: recent developments. Man, 61: 138-139. F. C. Howell 1961, Stratigraphie du Pleistocene Superieur dans L'Asie du Sud-Ouest: age relatif et absolu de l'homme et de ses industries, Anthropologie, Paris, 65: 1-20. F. Bordes 1962, Sur la chronologie du Paleolithique au Moyen Orient Quaternaria, 5: 57-69. D. Ferembach 1962, Esquisse d'une historie raciale de la Palestine du Paleolithique inferieur au Chalcolithique, Soc. d'Etudes et de Rech. prehist., 11: 127-139. B. Kurten 1965, The Carnivora of the Palestine caves, Acta zool. fenn., 107: 1-74. A. J. Jelinek, W. R. Farrand, G. Haas, A. Horowitz & P. Goldberg 1974, New excavations at the Tabun cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, 1967-1972: a preliminary report, Paleorient, in press. W. R. Farrand 1971, Late Quaternary paleoclimates of the eastern Mediterraneasn area, in K. Turekian ed. R. Farrand 1972, Geological correlation of prehistoric sites in the Levant, in F. Bordes ed. The origin of Homo sapiens Paris: Unesco: 227-235.
S:Formerly Royal college of Surgeons Collection, since 1955, British Museum(Natural History), London SW7, England(Tabun C1). Rockefeller Museum, Jerusalem.(Tabun C2).
T:University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, U.S.A.(Tabun C2, Barlow No. 608). Sub-Department of Anthropology, British Museum(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7, England(Tabun C1).

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