Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Database

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Placename

Shanidar.

Latitude / Longitude

36.83333333
44.21666667

data

ID:30125
A:Shanidar.
X:e,f,g
B:Cave, at 745 m elevation, 13.5 km NW of junction of Greater Zab and Rowanduz rivers, Erbil Liwa, N Iraq, and about 400 km N of Baghdad, Iraq.
C:3650N
D:4413E
E:R. S. Solecki, 1953(Shanidar 7); 1957-60(shanidar 1-6).
F:Layer D,(Fig. 4) brown loam; trace-element studies indicate accumulation under moist conditions. R. S. Solecki 1960, Three adult Neanderthal skeletons from northern Iraq, Rep. Smithson. Instn, 1960: 603-635. R. S. Solecki 1963, Prehistory in Shanidar valley, northern Iraq, Science, N. Y., 139: 179-193.
G:Shanidar 4 flexed as deliberate burial(fide R. S. Solecki, June 1963). A LeroiGourhan 1968, Le Neanderthalien IV de Shanidar, Bull. Soc. prehist. Fr., 65: 79-83.
H:Upper Pleistocene. R. S. Solecki 1963.
I:Mousterian. R. S. Solecki 1963.
J:Fauna indistinguishable from local extant fauna. C. A. Reed & R. J. Braidwood 1960, in R. J. Braidwood & B. Howe 1960, Prehistoric inverstigations in Iraqi Kurdistan, Chicago: 165. D. Perkins 1960, The faunal remains of Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar, 1960 season, Sumer, Baghdad, 16: 77-78. Warm flora(Phoenix dactylifera) in levels I and V: cool flora(Abies) in levels IV and VI. R. S. Solecki & A. Leroi-Gourhan 1961, Paleoaclimatology and archaeology in the Near East, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 95: 729-739.
K:Shanidar 1: F=0.08%, 100F/P205=0.2, eU308=nil, N=0,04%. animal bone: F=0.07%, 100F/P205=0.2, eU308=6ppm, N=0.169%.
L:A2/3, Shanidar 1: 46,900+-1500 BP(GrN-2527) on basis of radiocarbon dating of charcoal from hearth in top of layer D. J. C. Vogel & H. T. Waterbolk 1963, Groningen radiocarbon dates IV, Radiocarbon, 5: 173. A3, Shanidar 2: c. 60,000 BP. A3, Shanidar 3: c. 47,000 BP. A3, Shanidar 4: c. 60,000 BP. A3, Shanidar 5: c. 46,000 BP. A3, Shanidar 6: c. 60,000 BP. Fide T. D. Stewart 1968. All A3 dates inferred from available radiocarbon determinations. Shanidar 7 is stratigraphically the oldest, but not yet dated. R. S. Solecki 1963.
M:Shanidar 1. male, about 40 years: cranium(f), mandibula(f), all dentes except lower lt and rt I1, post-cranial skeleton(f). Shanidar 2. male, about 30 years: cranium(f), mandibula(f), dentes except for upper lt(?) C, I2, upper rt(?) I1, lower rt I; vertebrae(f), lt scapula(f), lt tibia(i), lt fibula(i). Shanidar 3. male, about 40 years: 4 dentes, post-cranial skeleton(ff). Shanidar 4. male, about 40 years: cranium(f), mandibula(f), some dentes, post-cranial skeleton(ff). Shanidar 5. cranium(ff), mandibula(ff), post-cranial skeleton(ff). Shanidar 6. young adult female: post-cranial skeleton(ff). Shanidar 7. infant about 9 months: cranium(f), mandibula(f), 15 dentes decidui, upper M1, post-cranial skeleton(ff).
N:R. S. Solecke 1955, Shanidar Cave, a Palaeolithic site in northern Iraq, Rep. Smithson. Instn, 1955: 389-425.
O:Descriptions published serially, see 14.
P:M. Senyurek 1957, The skeleton of the fossil infant found at Shanidar Cave, northern Iraq, Anatolia, Ankara, 2: 49-55, 111-120. M. Senyurek 1959, A study of the deciduous teeth of the fossil Shanidar infant, Publs. Univ. Ankara: 128. T. D. Stewart 1957, Restoration of the Shandiar I skull, Yb. Am. Phil. soc., 1957: 274-278. T. D. Stewart 1958, First view of the restored Shanidar I skull, Sumer, Baghdad, 14: 90-96(reprinted in Rep. Smithson. Instn: 473-480). T. D. Stewart 1960, Form of the pubic bone in Neanderthal man, Science, N, Y., 131: 1437-8. T. D. Stewart 1961, The skull of Shanidar II, Sumer, Baghdad, 17: 97-106(reprinted in Rep. Smithson. Instn: 421-533). T. D. Stewart 1962, Neanderthal cervical vertebrae, with special attention to the Shanidar Neanderthals from Iraq, Biblioth. Primatol., 1: 130-154. T. D. Stewart 1962, Neanderthal scapulae, with special attention to the Shanidar Neanderthals from Iraq, Anthropos, 57: 779-800. T. D. Stewart 1964, Shanidar skeletons IV and VI, Sumer, Baghdad, 19: 8-26.
Q:See 14.
R:T. C. Young Jr & P. E. L. Smith 1966, Research in the Prehistory of Central Western Iran, Science, N. Y., 153: 386-391. H. E. Wright 1968, Natural Environment of Early Food Production North of Mesopotamia, Science, N. Y., 161: 334-339.
S:Iraq Museum, Mathaf Square, Baghdad.

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